Estimation of the economic effects of public infrastructure by methods of hedonic pricing, by Jakub Vorel, Ondřej Gabaš, Daniel Franke, Irena Benešová, Sead-Aldin Kačarevič and Lukáš Makovský
This article describes the results of a research project the aim of which was to propose and apply methods of pricing of public possessions for the purpose of spatial planning. The research has focused on hedonic pricing methods, using these to estimate the economic effects of the proximity of metro stops, railway stations, public zones, parks, natural areas and school facilities. The opening part comments on various approaches to the evaluation of public estate and the methods usually used for evaluation. A description of the theory, ways of estimation and domains of use of hedonic pricing is followed by the results of an extensive survey of studies in hedonic pricing in the Czech Republic and abroad. The main part of the article deals with the application of hedonic pricing and the evaluation of its economic effects on public possessions in the city of Prague and the Region of Central Bohemia. The results show significant local economic impacts of these methods. The results indicate significant local economic effects of public possessions, for example a metro station within 600m of a property increases its value by 4.2%, the presence of a park within 300m increases the property price by 1%, and an increase in the proportion of natural areas within 800m of the property increases its value by 1.2%. The analysis also indicates that a primary school that reports gifted pupils on its register increases the value of properties in that school’s district by 1%. Besides benefits, the final part of the article enumerates limitations arising mainly from a lack of data available, complex interconnection of effects and significant heterogeneity in the qualities of territories.
Impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on transportation behaviour and development of online activities with implications for transportation and spatial planning, by Hana Brůhová-Foltýnová & Radomíra Jordová
With recommendations for further sustainable development, this article is a description of the long-term impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic on transportation behaviour in urban areas of the Czech Republic. It is based on the results of analyses of panel data on the mobility of the adult population in the Czech Republic during the Covid-19 pandemic and the impact of new experience of virtual settings on transportation behaviour over longer periods of time. These data were collected by means of four questionnaire surveys, repeated using the same sample of an urban population in 2020 and 2021. It has been confirmed that several trends that were on the rise during the pandemic (home office work, online shopping) have had an important influence on forms and composition of mobility. The article also comments on conclusions about the reduced share of public transportation use and the relatively stable share of walking and cycling despite the high potential of these types of transportation during the pandemic. Experience from abroad and examples of good practice in sustainable mobility are addressed with particular emphasis on their benefits for spatial and transportation planning in urban areas.
Planning of the housing function in shrinking towns, by Tomáš Peltan, Irena Benešová, Vlaďka Kirschner, Daniel Franke, Tomáš Soukup, Jiří Mika, Václav Jetel, Vojtěch Novotný, Jiří Čermák, Jan Cihlář, Jiří Hlaváček, Kristýna Mecnerová and Karel Maier
Although several Czech towns have decreased in population since the beginning of the 1990s, this process and its impacts are little reflected in Czech settings, and there is a lack of relevant planning. This is mainly due to the fact that the negative impact of superfluous housing capacities and public infrastructure has not yet become apparent, resulting in municipalities either not paying adequate attention to the shrinkage or their trying to renew growth by expansive policies. This article presents experience gained from pilot studies conducted in three Czech towns (Milevsko, Orlová and Sokolov) and methodological procedures derived from these studies. It can be seen that despite active efforts to stop the shrinkage, the loss in population will continue and natural compensation for this loss will become even more difficult. Also, the supply of housing stock will soon exceed the demand. If such a surplus remains unaddressed, housing stock will be vacant continuously, its maintenance will be neglected, and this will result in greater leeway for predatory businesses and subsequent disruption to the structure, image and social cohesion of the town. Therefore, towns are facing the challenge of making radical changes to their policy which must be based on acceptance of shrinkage as proven fact. Planning must aim at consolidation of built-up areas and population, renewal of balance in the housing market and prevention of undesirable extensive developments. At the same time, there will be opportunities to utilize superfluous capacities. In order to achieve these objectives efficiently, it is necessary to divide territories by forms of controlled shrinkage and put diversified accents on these objectives according to the progress of shrinkage in real time.
Coordination of selected links between the Central Bohemia Region and the City of Prague, by Helena Krejčíková
The Region of Central Bohemia and the City of Prague have a unique inter-regional functional link which implies a variety of benefits as well as complications. Both must be taken into consideration for purposes of spatial planning. This article seeks to highlight a few questionable aspects appearing in practice and addressed within the agenda of the Regional Office of the Central Bohemia Region, be it in official statements on local plans or methodological assistance to spatial planning authorities. The article also seeks to pay closer attention to contexts that can be inconspicuous at local level, perhaps due to the absence of adequate spatial planning documents that would ensure coordination between the two Regions.
The development of population and transportation infrastructure in Bavaria after the year 2000 in the context of regional planning and a few comparisons with developments in the Czech Republic, by Milan Körner
This article describes the population structure of Bavaria in the context of principles of regional planning after the year 2000, with particular accent on development of the transportation infrastructure. From the perspective of transportation, the region of Munich and the state of Bavaria as a whole were strongly influenced by their hosting of the Olympic Games 50 years ago and the construction of a new airport 30 kilometres north-east of Munich two decades later. This is also the 50th anniversary of territorial administration reforms that significantly reduced the number of districts. The article includes a few comparisons with developments in population and transportation infrastructure in the Czech Republic. The example of Bavaria can be inspirational for further developments here.