Overview of conceptual documents in transportation sector, by Luděk Sosna
The transportation sector has to take into account a number of conceptual documents with certain logical and factual links between them which guide its activities. This article describes their structure and content in a simplified way with the aim to make the reader familiar with the individual aspects of the transportation sector planning both at the horizontal level and in the field of individual transport modes.
Greener and heat- and drought-resistant cities - the MIT has prepared CZK 10.86 billion within the IROP programme to support green infrastructure, by Ondřej Pešek
The Integrated Regional Operational Programme (IROP) for the 2021-2027 period administered by the Ministry of Regional Development, includes a specific objective 2.2 called Strengthening the protection and conservation of nature, biodiversity and green infrastructure, including in urban areas, and reducing all forms of pollution (SC 2.2 IROP) and an activity "Green infrastructure in public spaces of cities and municipalities". CZK 10.86 billion from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) is available.
Current changes in Building law in the area of spatial planning in relation to renewable energy sources, by Karel Wirth, Josef Morkus
Act No. 19/2023 Coll. amended the Energy Act, the Building Act and some other regulations. The amendment aims to simplify the administrative burden associated with the construction of renewable energy sources. The definition of technical infrastructure has been changed in the area of spatial planning, which, together with the new regulation within the Energy Act, has consequences for the regulation of construction in undeveloped areas contained in Section 18(5) of the Building Act. Council Regulation (EU) No 2022/2057 laying down a framework for accelerating the deployment of energy from renewable sources will apply since 30 December 2023 for a transitional period of 18 months: however, the impact of this Regulation on spatial planning is marginal. The Ministry of Regional Development has issued methodological comments on the interpretation of both items of legislation from a spatial planning perspective which is available on the ministry's website.
MRD grants for digitalization of spatial plans and support of design and urban planning competitions, by Zuzana Vašinová
This year, the Ministry of Regional Development has prepared calls from the programme Support for spatial planning activities of municipalities 2023+ and Support for the design and urban planning competitions 2023+ for municipalities with 5,000 inhabitants or less. The aim of the call from the programme Support for spatial planning activities of municipalities 2023+ is to support the conceptual spatial development through a systemic subsidy for the development of spatial plans and their transformation into a uniform standard in order to improve the quality of public administration decision-making process on the territory, increase the number of valid spatial plans and digitalize the public administration of the Czech Republic in the field of spatial planning. The call from the programme Support for the design and urban planning competitions 2023+ is aimed at supporting the organisation of design and urban planning competitions by subsidising part of the costs of prizes and awards. It aims at encourage more frequent use of these competitions, which should lead to a higher quality of architectural and urban design works and thus of the built environment as a whole.
Vision and reality of the development of Czech transport infrastructure: part I. Road and air transport, by Milan Körner
Thirty years ago, significant changes took place in Central Europe, which were reflected in the new directions in country and regional ties. Subsequently, the Central European countries became members of the European Union. The Schengen Agreement meant the creation of a "common area" for the movement of people and goods. These changes naturally had a significant impact on transport (and communications) infrastructure. However, even 30 years later, the Czech road and rail infrastructure still show significant deficits in cross-border and domestic links. Although several programmes have been designed for the development of "main routes" in the rail and road network, these "visions" have not, with a few exceptions, been reflected in actual construction. Delays in key constructions are not in the order of years, but rather in the order of decades. This situation implies significant shortcomings in transport infrastructure. The article includes the author's proposals for modifying the concept of the main transportation network. The first part of the article addresses the road and air transportation sector. Rail transport and waterways will be the subject of the second part.
Spatial analytical documents of the capital city of Prague as a reflection of activities in the area, in other words: transport in data, by Marek Zděradička
Transport, or mobility, reflects social development, especially the development of the territory. Changes in residential housing (e.g. price and availability of housing), the way of work (home office), motivation to use different modes of transport, changes in the way of shopping (e-shops) and even the situation in healthcare, e.g., pandemics, have a significant impact on patterns of behaviour when commuting to work, school or using services, etc. These factors change demands on transport over time and the changes tend to be described and assessed with a slight retrospective. It is essential to make a comprehensive assessment of the development of the area and its relationships and to look for the causes of certain phenomena. The spatial analytical documents determined by the Building Act represent an excellent platform for such analyses. The Spatial Analytical Documents of the Capital City of Prague 2020 have been broadly defined in such a way and serve as a valuable source of information both for experts and the general public.
Transport in the South Bohemian region, by Lumír Zenkl, Ondřej Zenkl, Václav Protiva
Until recently, the South Bohemian Region represented an area with a rather below-average level of transport infrastructure compared to other regions of the Czech Republic, especially the connection between České Budějovice and the capital city of Prague. However, this has changed considerably over the last twenty years or so. The D3 motorway has reached the outskirts of the regional town from the border with the Central Bohemian Region and its continuation southwards to the Austrian border is under construction. The D4 motorway should reach Písek or Strakonice from Prague in less than two years. The journey by train from České Budějovice to Prague has been reduced to a hundred minutes, until recently hardly believable. The last time South Bohemia experienced such a pace of construction of transport routes was about 140 years ago. The following article describes this development. However, it reflects at the same time on what could, or rather should, have been done better.
CYCLOVISION 2030 - safer cycling infrastructure, by Jaroslav Martinek
The article presents the CYCLOVISION 2030 project, which represents a set of measures to create a safe transportation network for modern means of individual transport in the Czech Republic. The project is intended to contribute to building and operating a network in a similar way to that of railways or roads. A group composed of representatives of individual regions is working on its creation under the auspices of the Association of Regions of the Czech Republic and the Partnership for Urban Mobility Association. CYKLOVISION 2030 cooperates closely with a working group of the Ministry of Transport focused on coordinating the development of active mobility infrastructure. Nowadays, the cycling infrastructure in our country is often discontinuous, exposing users to dangerous situations during their journeys when a cycle path is run on a busy road or the path abruptly ends without continuing. Firstly, the paper presents the challenges that can prevent the implementation and subsequently introduces tools and measures to address them. The final section demonstrates the benefits it can bring.
Research into suitable modifications of intersections in relation to capacity and environmental impacts, by Eva Kvašňovská, Petr Neuwirth, Radim Striegler, Leoš Pelikán, Eva Havlíčková
The research focuses on the potential use of unconventional intersection modifications that lead to an increase in their capacity, a reduction in the delay time when passing through the intersection, and thus a reduction in emissions of pollutants produced by road traffic in their place and surroundings. The aim of the research is to test the application of these unused alternative modifications at intersections in the Czech Republic in order to permanently increase the efficiency of the transportation system while reducing the negative effects on the environment, public health and climate change while maintaining transport competitiveness. The solution identified locations in the Czech Republic for the implementation and assessment of surveys at capacitively inadequate intersections, for which modifications were proposed without expanding the construction occupation of the intersection within the built-up area, i.e. using the existing space, or with only minimal partial expansion to increase their permeability and thus reduce emissions. The PTV Vissim microsimulation tool was used to assess the overall capacity and efficiency of the existing condition and unconventional modifications. The MEFA 13 emission modelling software, approved by the legislation of the Czech Republic, was used to calculate emissions from road transport. The results will serve to create a good basis for the possibility of implementing unconventional modifications of intersections and their adaptation to specific types of conventional intersections in the conditions of the Czech Republic. The research was carried out within the framework of the DOPRAVA 2020+ programme funded by the state subsidy of the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic and the Ministry of Transport of the Czech Republic.
Mobility change - against paralyzing optimism, by Christian Holz-Rau, Isabelle Wachter, Patricia Feiertag, Martin Randelhoff, Joachim Scheiner, Laura Wächter, Karsten Zimmermann
For more than thirty years, an increasing number of transport planners have been promoting strategies to reduce traffic (by shorter trips and fewer journeys), shift in the mode of transport (by fewer journeys by individual means of transport), a higher proportion of environmentally acceptable transport (walking, cycling and public transport) and more acceptable solutions in terms of safer, cleaner, quieter vehicles and travel. These strategies, together with the Push-and-Pull principle of reducing unwanted traffic on the one hand, and incentives for desirable solutions on the other, form the DNA of integrated transport planning. All of this is covered by the terms: mobility change and transport turnover, which refer to such developments in passenger transport (and analogically in freight transport) in which transport performance, car and air transport volumes, the number of cars, specific emissions and/or specific energy consumption is decreasing. The damage caused by noise, exhaust fumes, accidents, etc. is also significantly reduced as a result. Without ignoring other problems and threats, climate protection has reached the forefront of the current debate as probably the most important issue.