Smart Cities Concept: the MMR Publication Shows Readers its Successful Implementation and Mistake Prevention, by Ivana Svojtková
Smart Cities represent a concept of strategic management of a city, municipality or region, using modern technologies to influence the life quality and consequently achieve the economic, social and environmental goals of the city.
Spatial Planning Support in the Fair Transformation Operational Programme, by Tomáš Komm
The Fair Transformation Operational Programme has opened calls providing comprehensive support for the reconstruction of areas affected by coal mining in the Karlovy Vary, Ústí nad Labem and Moravian-Silesian Regions. This support includes the Concept and Project Preparation call, which allows support for the preparation or modification of spatial plans, land-use planning documents and other documentation that can help to conceptually plan the post-coal mining area usage.
Quantitative Classification of Urban Structure Types, by Lukáš Kopp
The structural view of urban planning is gradually (re)establishing itself within the spatial planning environment. One of the primary tools of structural spatial planning is the division of a city's territory into smaller, constituent spatial units based on its predominant character. However, the prevailing qualitative approaches carry with them a number of limitations, including their reproducibility, and empirical objectivity, but also their demandingness in terms of time and institutional capacity. The aim of the paper is to use the case study of the capital city of Prague to present one of the possible alternative approaches to the classification and spatial definition of the urban structure, which stems from the currently establishing discipline of quantitative urban morphology. This approach is aimed at increasing the objectivity of the description of the urban structure of cities, not bound to predefined boundaries or categories. Categories of structures are defined statistically by using measurable features of the basic structural concepts of urban form and subsequent capturing of the relationships between them. The presented methodology offers an application especially in the framework of the creation of spatial analytical documents as an empirical basis or an evaluation tool, allowing for the supplementation or revision of procedures based on a qualitative approach to defining and characterizing types of urban structure of cities.
Smart European Street as a Digital Twin, by Roman Dostál, Miroslav Svítek, Ondřej Přibyl
The paper discusses the concept and use of digital twins, particularly in the transport sector. It highlights the importance of digital twins as virtual replicas of the physical world that enable real-time monitoring, testing and optimization. The article gives an example of a digital twin project in the capital city of Prague, focusing on a European street. The aim of the project is to create a functional digital twin that can predict traffic congestion and suggest mitigation strategies. It also discusses the possibilities of integrating traffic these approaches into other sectors such as urban planning, energy and environment. The paper highlights the importance of data collection, model building, data integration and the use of digital twins in real-world applications. Despite the challenges in data collection, the advantages of digital twins are highlighted, such as cost savings, better decision-making possibilities and improved development of new technological concepts.
Artificial Intelligence Usage in Analysing Human Movement in Public Space. Mariánské Square in Prague Case Study, by Jana Zdráhalová, Lukáš Kurilla, Petr Prášek, Zdeněk Berka
The search for a relationship between the nature of public space and the ways in which people use that space is one of the standard tasks of urban design (Sitte, 2012; Whyte, 1980; Gehl, 1971; Lynch, 1960). Human activities in space and people's reactions to the urban and architectural characteristics of a place can be monitored through mental maps and interviews (Lynch, 1960; Benda et al., 1978), photographs and films (Whyte, 1980; Gehl, 1971), or through local experiences and observations, such as following people's routes by tracing a trampled footprint in the snow (Sitte, 2012). The knowledge gained is typically used to create an informed design of a public space that addresses, in particular, the usability of the space, safety issues, and the elimination of collisions between road traffic and people's residential activities.
This text presents an urban experiment that tested the possibilities of involving artificial intelligence in mapping activities in public space. It presents the results of a four-year research, supported by TA ČR NCK TN01000024, which used CCTV camera recordings to monitor activities in a given public space. Specifically, we focused on Mariánské Square in the capital city of Prague, where five CCTV cameras that continuously monitored the space of the square were placed. Data collection took place in two cycles, each lasting four days. The first one took place in October 2019 before the reconstruction of the space, the second one a month later - after the road traffic in the square was regulated and new furnishing was added (Prague chairs, a large table, mobile flowerpots and concrete blocks to prevent the traffic). In both cases, the space was recorded from Thursday to Sunday to capture both the weekdays and the weekend.
The collected data from the CCTV cameras was converted into trajectories using a neural network, which was used to create heatmaps. The heatmap shows the density of mobile and stationary activities of people in the square area. The physical space was described in terms of material design, height characteristics (curbs, stairs), location of furnishings, parking spaces and traffic organization. The heatmap intensity was compared with the physical characteristics of the space in order to find connections, relationships and a deeper understanding of the patterns of people's behaviour in the space.
The comparison of the results of both observations showed how the specific design of the square influences the frequency of people in the space, increases residential activities and also leads to the use of elements in the space for new and unintended activities (for example, the use of concrete blocks as benches). The use of artificial intelligence to collect and interpret people's movements in public space has shown benefits that conventional participant observation does not provide. These include the objectivity of the collected data not burdened by the personalities of the observers, the comparability of data from different time periods, the possibility of accurately collecting data from large areas of public space, the possibility of accurately locating the trajectories of people in space, and the representation of dynamic patterns of space use. Furthermore, the data collected in this way allows for detailed interpretations of the relationship between people's trajectories, space characteristics and other environmental influences such as temperature, shading, noise pollution, etc., however, these are beyond the scope of this paper.
Data Sources Aggregation for the Creation of a Representative Layer of the Population Distribution of the Olomouc Region, by Oldřich Rypl, Jaroslav Burian
Information about the distribution of population in space is essential for describing our society and for studying the interrelationships between elements of the human-geographical sphere - this is so also in the field of spatial planning and the management of cities and regions. However, traditional data sources (usually national registers) provide only a static view linked to the place of residence (or workplace) of the population, which is inaccurate and can be highly misleading. When analysing phenomena and their causes, which are often independent of administrative boundaries, it is desirable to eliminate the apparent inaccuracy and provide researchers, officials or local governments with accurate and sufficiently detailed data for informed decision-making and obtaining better quality outputs. This paper describes a procedure for aggregating several data sources to provide a solution for producing more accurate datasets on the spatial distribution of population over time. The procedure is described both at the level of methodological steps and at the level of technical implementation in a GIS environment. The results are presented for the Olomouc region.
Method of delineating visually sensitive landscape horizons and their protective zones based on exact mathematic modellations with regards to the placement of photovoltaic farms and agrivoltaic systems. A case study – Svébohov cadastre, by Petr Dujka, Vladimír Dujka, Anna Vaculíková
The political climate of 2022 has highlighted the need for an active public discourse regarding the energy self-sufficiency of the Czech Republic, with wind farms, photovoltaic power stations and agrivoltaics now at the forefront. The implementations of such power plants administered up to this day have shown that the technical solutions of these projects may negatively impact the current landscape setting and its aesthetic, cultural and historical worth. The risk is posed mainly by disturbing the landscape character and, in particular, by disrupting the visual horizon lines that partake in creating an area’s overall disposition. This case study aims to propose a technical solution to this problem, initially raised by the demand for regulating the placement of renewable resources power stations in a nature park territorial development documents. In the first step, visually sensitive horizons were computed using digital terrain model geo-informational analyses and multiple local, regional and distant observation points. In the second step, protective zones of the horizons were computed in such a manner so that the landscape aesthetic value is not deformed by the placement of buildings near the visually sensitive horizon lines. The solution proposed combines an expert approach with modern geo-informational analyses, which allows for objective results (variability of input technical parameters) and significantly eliminates the potential error rate of an authors‘ subjective planning document assessment. Further benefits include the minimal economic expenses for running this method, its algorithmization, and repeatability for any location and building height required. Implementing this method’s results may prove to be a valuable contribution to the spatial planning practice.
A Smart, Not Just Intelligent, City Should Be Our Goal, by Martin Maštálka, Vladimíra Šilhánková
Advances in computing technology followed by digitalization have brought major changes both to the management of large corporations and state authorities and the administration of medium and small towns and municipalities, along with the gradual miniaturization, the development of fast networks, and especially the decreasing prices of individual components. In the Czech Republic, as well as abroad, the term Smart City is used for this concept. Some sources also use the term intelligent city. In particular, the adjectives smart and intelligent are very often used as synonyms. However, in the foreign literature, there are differences between these concepts which are crucial in some aspects, especially in terms of the performance of public administration or local government. The aim of this article is to explain the difference between smart and intelligent cities and to present the complexity of the Smart City issue using the Smart City Index.
Knowledge Graphs as a Tool for Smart City Analysis, by Viktor Beneš, Miroslav Svítek
Knowledge graphs, which provide a platform for integrating and coordinating different aspects of urban planning and governance, are examined in the context of the capital city of Prague, specifically the mobility domains. The paper presents an analysis in the area of data correlation between emissions, meteorological situation and road traffic. It also focuses on introducing knowledge graphs as a tool for creating holistic and integrated approaches to urban development challenges, careful planning and coordination in the implementation and use of knowledge graphs in practice. The results show that although knowledge graphs offer many possibilities, their successful use requires taking into account the specific context and needs of each city.
Support for Smart Development by the Slovak Smart City Cluster, by Maroš Finka, Igor Wzoš
The Slovak Smart City Cluster (SSCC) was established on the initiative of seven founding members in 2016 as an interest association of legal entities integrating representatives of the business environment, technology innovators, public administration representatives and academic sphere. It is open to all entities interested in supporting the development, promotion and dissemination of the concept of smart cities and regions in Slovakia. Currently, the SSCC has twenty-two members.
City Management Exists Anyway, So Why Shouldn't Make It Smart? by Lucia Dobrucká
The Smart City concept is attractive for many Czech and Slovak cities. At the same time, however, in our country it remains strongly tied to the development of technology and the human aspect is somewhat lost in it, both in terms of soft factors of the life quality of citizens and the ability of city representatives to actively manage the development. This article focuses on Vienna, which is considered a city with a very high quality of life and an example of good practice of the Smart City concept on a global level. However, it does not discuss Vienna's strategy as such, nor the specific projects implemented in Vienna. The focus is put on the key aspects of the development of the framework strategy (Smart City Wien: Framework strategy) and the principles set for its implementation. The article points out that the success of Vienna is not due to the Smart City concept itself but to the ability of Vienna's representatives to integrate this concept into the natural way of life of its inhabitants as well as into the long-standing principles of city governance. The functionality of smart governance in Vienna is founded on concepts such as consistency, comprehensiveness, harmonisation and cooperation.