OBSAH 5/2012

Názory a diskuse

    Martin Tunka

    Introduction to the topic of suburbanization, by Martin Tunka

    Transformations of the territory of the Czech Republic in the last twenty years was the subject of the 5/2010 issue of Urban Planning & Spatial Development. As suburbanization has very much in common with these transformations, the editors have decided to make it the focus of the present issue. Suburbanization is discussed in the press, became a theme of the last municipal elections, and is focused on by numerous specialist publications and web sites.

  • Recenzovaný článek
    Karel Maier

    Physical planning tools for regulation of suburbanization, by Karel Maier

    The hinterlands of large Czech cities and similar territories in all Central and Eastern European countries face strong pressure from suburbanization and/or peri-urbanization. In contrast to cities in Western Europe, suburbanization has been delayed here, but it is now proceeding apace. The transformation of rural settlements into suburban satellites and the origin in the landscape of new and vast logistical, commercial and assembly plants and centres is the cause of many conflicts and problems. Tools for the coordination and regulation of suburbanization are originating only gradually. Nevertheless, for the time being, the practice of physical planners and the decision-making of authorities responsible for spatial development tend to support suburbanization and make it technically feasible. The newly built residential satellites and peri-urban areas will have to be integrated into the settlement system and its functional structure, which will undoubtedly place heavy demands on sources and capacities and require the concentrated attention of physical planners.

  • Recenzovaný článek
    Tomáš Peltan

    Suburbanization and the energy demands of commuting, by Tomáš Peltan

    Problems of suburbanization go beyond architecture and urban planning, accessibility of public facilities, impact on public budgets, social problems, and dependence on high individual mobility and related costs. Another important question concerns energy demands. This article presents the results of research on energy demands made by commuting to work in remote locations in the Czech Republic. It is shown that the highest demands for energy are in suburban areas. In some of these, the amount of energy needed for commuting is several times higher than that for heating a passive standard house. This is a serious threat for these areas and their inhabitants, especially in relation to the current geopolitical instability which leads to increased prices of energy, not least of liquid fossil fuels. At the same time, it is shown that neglecting the need for energy as related to the location can seriously misrepresent the assessment of energy demands of buildings, rendering worthless efforts for their decreasing.

  • Recenzovaný článek
    Luděk Sýkora, Ondřej Mulíček

    Urbanization and suburbanization in the Czech Republic at the beginning of the 21st century, by Luděk Sýkora & Ondřej Mulíček

    Based on an assessment of population allocation, this article analyzes changes in the system of settlements and regions of the Czech Republic between 1991 and 2011. At the beginning, population growth or decrease is studied in 260 working microregions and functional urban regions. Part two of the article is devoted to the trajectories of internal development of microregions, based on assessment of population shifts in three basic territorial parts: the core, the suburban zone, and the peripheral part of microregions. The article then evaluates the system of settlements and regions of the Czech Republic from the viewpoint of the occurrence and representation of processes of microregional urbanization, suburbanization and desurbanization.

    Milan Körner

    Development of selected metropolitan regions in Central Europe after 1990, by Milan Körner

    This article deals with population development in regions of Central Europe after 1990. Observations are performed on metropolitan regions of countries neighbouring the Czech Republic, i.e. Germany (Munich, Nuremberg, Dresden), Austria (Vienna, Linz) and Slovakia (Bratislava), as well as the metropolitan region of Prague. Suburban development in metropolitan regions is a continuous process. The continuity of development in Prague was interrupted between the end of the 1930s and the beginning of the 1990s. Following the trends of the previous period, there have been important developments in Bavarian and Austrian metropolitan regions in the last 20 years.

    Petr Klápště, Marek Bečka, Eva Klápšťová

    How to reflect on the future of suburbs, by Petr Klápště, Marek Bečka and Eva Klápšťová

    When looking for answers to the question of what suburbs will look like in the future, ever more questions arise. Will suburbs of various types develop in similar ways or in perhaps markedly different ways to each other? Which of the characteristics of today’s suburbs will be of importance for their successful development in the future? Will suburbanization continue? If it does, what forms will it take? To help to answer these questions, the paper suggests a prognostic process. The following trends, or perhaps key factors on which scenarios can be based, are identified and explained in global and local contexts: increased price of energy, ageing population, climate change, change in the role of open landscape, ability to innovate, and the move towards open civil society in post-communist conditions. To briefly summarize, suburbs very dramatically differ in what was identified as essential characteristics for the ability to positively react to future trends. Even more important than the starting conditions, successful development of suburbs will largely depend on the ability of municipal and regional elites, both formal and informal, to efficiently and promptly deal with threats and opportunities.

    Vladimír Mackovič

    Green belts and the process of urbanization, by Vladimír Mackovič

    Suburban landscape is a type of highly multifunctional space. Its long development is mainly determined by the process of suburbanization. In the hinterlands of large cities the demarcation of green belts is supposed to act as a corrective measure to their planar development. Green belts represent a nation-wide priority of physical planning for sustainable spatial development.

    Vladimír Matuš

    Canadian suburbs from a Czech-Canadian architect’s perspective, by Vladimír Matuš

    The architect Vladimír Matuš has become our regular foreign correspondent. His contributions, based on his long practice, provide a unique opportunity to compare urban planning and physical planning in Canada and the US with the Czech experience. Following his articles on the Urban Braille project (UP&SD 2/2004), planning in rural Canada (UP&SD 4/2005), and the relation between civilization development and planning (UP&SD 1/2011), we now offer his reflections in the context of the major topic of this issue. Historical connections of the development of suburbs under American conditions are explored in readable form, with comments on their transfer to the European (therefore Czech) context with all the accompanying consequences.

    Dana Novotná

    The background to housing construction, part two: Brno, by Dana Novotná

    In my article The background to housing construction in the First Republic of Czechoslovakia (4/2012) I commented on social and economic conditions which were decisive for the origin of a purposeful and supportive government housing construction policy. I presented examples of houses and apartment blocks by various builders in Prague, Znojmo and Jičín. It was in Jičín that architect Čeněk Musil’s regulation plan of that time supported this kind of building so intensely and elaborately that whole neighbourhoods were marked out, with houses built by employees of the state. The scheme even counted with a zone for those who decided to stay in a town with little industry and a pleasant and interesting environment after retirement. A completely different situation was that of large settlements where hundreds of new inhabitants came to work although the city was not ready for them.

    Vladimír Mackovič

    Links between spatial plans and landscape element solutions, by Vladimír Mackovič

    The landscape is focused on by various plans and intents. Change occurs even though stabilization or preservation of its natural and cultural values is required. A substantial part of the landscape is exploited for economic purposes (agriculture, forestry). The landscape, or rather some of its elements, is the source of water, raw materials and energy, and the place where waste is disposed of. Suitable segments of the landscape host other activities such as tourism. The subject of this article, which intends to start a professional discussion about landscape solutions in spatial plans, is possibilities provided by spatial planning for the treatment of particular elements of the landscape. Among other objectives, this discussion should focus on principles and ways of the delimitation of areas for varied use in open landscape and the content and direction of conditions of their use.

    Věra Thea Zoubková

    Self-administrations and the revitalization of socially excluded locations, by Věra Thea Zoubková

    These days many Czech cities experience worsened quality of life in residential quarters suffering from social and spatial exclusion, poor housing and hygiene, and sociopathological phenomena. With these threats to social integrity and the security of citizens, deprived locations decrease the attractiveness of settlements and their competitiveness in the market of real estate. A controlled process of revitalization, not only of the physical environment but also of local socioeconomic conditions, may be a solution to this problem. This article presents some procedures and routines which have recently been applied by self-administrations to revitalize socially excluded locations.

    Alois Hynek

    On the necessity of more profound study of cultural landscape, by Alois Hynek

    Landscape study is an important transdisciplinary topic within the quest for opportunities for sustainability, both of nature and of human society and, recently, of their security. The European Landscape Convention, also ratified by the Czech Republic, invites more profound contemplation about landscape study, focusing on practical steps for its improvement. The aim of this article is to instigate discourse on landscape among experts as well as local inhabitants. Nevertheless, this does not mean looking for easy solutions and boosting simplicity instead of comprehensibility. The boom of information technologies must not be our escape to attractive computer graphics of valueless content. On the contrary: the complexity of landscape study means a preference for sound data and their profound interpretation. Also, it is necessary to process interference of spatial concepts of landscape, regions, locations, territories and globions, and relations of their commensurable spatialities which are not accepted by current policies.

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